Kalina is an ancient Slavic word meaning, according to the assumption of some scholars, a shrub that grows in a swamp, and according to others, it indicates a bright red, as if red-hot color of the fruit. For many Slavic peoples, the red color is considered a symbol of girlish beauty, love and happiness. Guelder-rose - "a wedding tree". The bride before the wedding gave the groom a towel embroidered with leaves and berries of viburnum. Its flowers decorated tables, wedding loaves, girl’s wreaths. A bunch of viburnum fruits with a scarlet ribbon was laid on the treats with which the bride and groom regaled guests. For a long time, in the middle zone of Russia they baked guelder-rose pies: mashed viburnum fruits were placed between cabbage leaves and baked. This cake looked like a black cake and had a smell slightly reminiscent of the smell of valerian. Many legends are stacked about this plant. One of them tells how girls took enemies into the forest to save loved ones from imminent death. Bushes of viburnum with red berries grew from the blood of the dead girls. In Russia, agricultural work was associated with viburnum. This is reflected in the sayings: “they sow barley while the viburnum is blooming”, “rain on Akulina (April 7) - viburnum will be good, as long as the spring is bad”.
Kalina, (lat.Viburnum) - a species of shrubs (less often - trees) of the Kalina (Viburnum) genus of the Adoxaceae family.
The genus includes about 200 species, distributed in the temperate and subtropical zone of Eurasia, most of North America and North Africa.
They grow in the form of deciduous, sometimes small trees. Most species of viburnum are shade-tolerant and moisture-loving.. In all species, the opposite, less often whorled arrangement of leaves. Leaves with stipules whole, lobed or palmate-lobed. The flowers are white, sometimes pinkish, collected in scabby inflorescences and are represented by two types: barren - with a large perianth and fertile - very modest, small, narrow-tubular. Red or blue-black fruits are drupes, mostly edible. Propagated by cuttings, layering, seeds. Life expectancy is 50-60 years.
A resident of central Russia is well acquainted with viburnum due to the wide distribution of one of the species of this genus - common viburnum (Viburnum opulus). In the wild, it can be found in almost every forest - at the edge, clearing, glade. Viburnum is grown in the front gardens of village houses, and in summer cottages, and even in urban landings. The Russian has long appreciated the ordinary viburnum as an unpretentious shrub, which responds with appreciation to the simplest care, giving in return bright blossoms, lush autumn foliage decoration and an abundance of beautiful and healthy fruits. However, there are other species whose culture in open ground conditions is also possible in our country.
Viburnum is very decorative. Most of them bloom in late May and early June, completing the spring riot of colors with their white, pinkish or yellowish inflorescences. Flowering is long, sometimes stretching for two or three weeks. Some species (common viburnum, fork, Sargent, three-lobed) have very large, up to 12-15 cm in diameter, umbellate inflorescences, consisting of two types of flowers. In the center of the "umbrella" are small tubular fertile flowers, which subsequently produce berries. And along the edge are larger and brighter sterile ones, the main task of which is to attract pollinating insects. In other species (viburnum, Bureya, toothed, Mongolian, pride, Canadian pride, Wright, slaliferous), inflorescences are formed only by prolific flowers, but their size, brightness and delicate aroma are also impressive. All viburnum are good melliferous plants.
Beautiful viburnum and its leaves. In common viburnum, three-lobed and Sargent, they are lobed, consisting of 3 or 5 lobes (in shape they are somewhat reminiscent of leaves of maple). Viburnum has a Bureya, fork, serratus, serratus, Mongolian, Wright, sigiliferous, and both arches have leaves of an unusual oval or elliptical shape for us. Summer coloring - from light green to deep dark green, but in autumn all viburnum blooms in the brightest tones of the warm part of the spectrum - from yellow to carmine red. The great poet was accurate when comparing a bush of viburnum with a burning bonfire. Against the background of such a bonfire, it is sometimes difficult to make out berries. The most unusual are the leaves of the viburnum are forked: large, up to 25 cm long, round-ovate leaf blades are cut by a whimsical network of relief wrinkles. In autumn, they are painted immediately in several colors - on one sheet you can simultaneously see green, yellow, scarlet, raspberry, red-brown and purple spots.
Viburnum is also famous for its fruits. Berries in most species acquire color in August. They contrast against the backdrop of a dense crown, delight the eye throughout the fall and adorn the bushes even in winter. In some species, the fruits are red or pinkish-orange, in the mature state, juicy, as in the common viburnum. Other species give black berries with a bluish or blue bloom. But there are viburnums in which there are two colors in the brush: some of them are ripe, black and shiny, others are immature, red. Such a contrast is especially beautiful and attractive. It is characteristic of guelder-rose of pride and guelder-rose.
There is conflicting information about the edible properties of viburnum fruits: someone reports on their exceptional value, and someone writes about poisonous properties. This is not so. The fruits of almost all types of viburnum are edible (like their taste or not - this is another question), but only fully ripe berries should be eaten and know the measure. Otherwise, vomiting and diarrhea are possible. The edibility of the fruits of Viburnum vulgaris, Sargent, three-lobed is reliably known. Their juicy red berries lose their tart bitterness after freezing, as well as during processing in jelly, jam, mashed potatoes, when the berries are dried. Their fruits are not only tasty, but also have healing properties: they normalize blood pressure and improve digestion. Among the people, the fruits of ordinary viburnum are used as a vitamin, restorative, diaphoretic and diuretic, as well as a mild laxative. Among the viburnum with red fruits, the three-lobed viburnum is considered the most palatable and therefore in its homeland, in North America, it is called “cranberry” viburnum. Berries of black-fruited viburnum (Bureinskaya, sapilifolia, Canadian pride) are also suitable for food, have a sweetish and somewhat mealy flesh.
In some species of viburnum, very beautiful decorative forms are known that differ from their wild ancestors by unusual features of their appearance. The most famous garden cultivar of common viburnum is Buldenezh (Boule de Neige, or Sterile, Roseum). The name of this variety is translated into Russian from French as Snow globe, or Snowball (although it would be easier and more understandable to call it "snowball"), because its main feature is large, up to 10 cm in diameter, spherical inflorescences of snow-white color consisting only of sterile flowers. Such bushes do not produce fruit, but the abundance of "snowballs" hanging throughout the bush at the end of May is always surprising. Viburnum vulgaris also has a Compactum form. This plant is quite modest in size, up to 1.5 m tall and in diameter, but this variety is not inferior to wild viburnum in flowering and fruiting. There is also a real dwarf form - a dense spherical bush, rarely exceeding 1 m in diameter. Funny "balls" of dark green color look very interesting on the lawn along with garden forms of conifers, but they rarely bloom and bear fruit. In viburnum, pride is best known in the culture for cultivars Variegatum and Aureum. The first form is remarkable for its marbled pattern of yellow and light green spots on wrinkled leaves, while the second cultivar has greenish yellow foliage.
There are still a number of species of viburnum, the cultivation of which in central Russia would be very interesting, if not for poor winter hardiness. This is viburnum Karlsa (V. carlesii), K. evergreen (V. tinus), K. wrinkled leaves (V. rhytidophyllum), K. David (V. davidii), K. fragrant (V. odoratissimum), K. odorous (V . farreri), K. Japanese (V. japonicum), as well as a number of hybrids (V. x. burkwoodii, V. bodnantense, V. caricephalum). They are beautiful and unusual, many are evergreens, have a strong and pleasant aroma of flowers. Some of these species withstand haircuts in classic green hedges. In our harsh climate, sometimes, with very painstaking care and careful shelter of plants for the winter, it is possible to keep them alive. But in this case, you will have to forget about flowering and especially the haircut. These species of viburnum are suitable for the south and extreme south of Russia.
Location: most species of viburnum grow well and bear fruit in partial shade. Thanks to the dense root system, they well strengthen the soil on the slopes and slopes. Garden forms of viburnum should be planted in the most lighted, sunny places in the summer cottage. Only in these conditions will they fully show their decorative potential. For viburnum in the garden, select a place with excess moisture and optimal soil acidity of 5.5-6.5. If there is a pond in the garden, then there is no better place for viburnum.
Landing: plant viburnum in spring or autumn. The size of the pit is 50 x 50 cm. In addition to peat, it is necessary to add phosphorus 40–50 g, potassium and nitrogen 25–30 g each. When planting, the seedling is deepened by 3–5 cm. Apparent roots appearing at the same time improve survival. The distance between plants is 1.5 - 2.0 m.
Care: top dressing is carried out twice: before the start of the growing season and before the start of leaf fall. In the spring make: nitrogen - 50 g, phosphorus -40 g and potassium - 30 g per square meter. In the fall they give only phosphorus and potassium half the spring dose. Fertilizers are scattered superficially, then the soil is hoeed or dug, watered and mulched. To form a tree, they leave one powerful shoot, all others are removed. Within three years, one shoot is kicked out, which will become the trunk of the tree. The height of the stem is 1 - 1.2 m. The viburnum should be rejuvenated by cutting off all old branches at a height of 15 - 20 cm from the soil surface. Viburnum is black, forked, Karlsa, laurel-leaved, or evergreen, wrinkled, suitable for cultivation only in the south of Russia, but sometimes they can be preserved in gardens of central Russia, if it is reliably sheltered for the winter or get hardened seedlings from nurseries.
Protection against pests and diseases: viburnum is often affected by viburnum bark beetle (leaf beetle), which eats all the leaves, leaving only veins from them. To combat it, plants are treated with 0.2% chlorophos. On the trunks and branches, a comma-shaped scale can appear. A 0.1% solution of malathion is used against it. To prevent diseases such as spotting and powdery mildew, treatment with tobacco, garlic or onion infusion is recommended throughout the season.
© pizzodisevo (first of all, my health)
All viburnum propagated by cuttings, layering, seeds.
Seed propagation of viburnum has a number of features. Seeds sown after a 6-7-month stratification begin to germinate only in August: first, the root and submucosal knee starts to grow, the embryonic bud remains at rest. The cotyledons reach the surface and the dropping of covers occurs in the spring of next year. Given this circumstance, beds with crops of viburnum should be covered in the first winter with leaf and peat. To accelerate seed germination, stratification is used in two stages at a variable temperature. To start the growth of the root, a temperature of + 18-20 ° C is necessary, and for passing the dormant state -3 ... -5 ° C. Therefore, after 2.5-3 months of warm stratification, the seeds are placed for 3-4 months in the conditions of cold stratification and only then sown in the ground. The seeding rate of 8-15 g, germination rate of 54-88%. When sown in autumn with freshly picked seeds, shoots appear only after a year. The first two years, seedlings grow slowly, and from the third year their growth has been increasing. Plants of seed origin bear fruit in 4-5 years. The harvest of fruits from a well-developed plant aged 10-15 years is 10-25 kg.
Decorative forms are best propagated by green cuttings. Better rooting cuttings from 2-3 year old wood. Green cuttings can be rooted if they are cut during the period of active growth of shoots. The rooting of cuttings is high. In conditions of artificial fog at a temperature of 22-25 ° C, 100% rooting is obtained. With a lack of heat, rooting decreases dramatically. Cuttings are harvested from the first decade of June to the end of July. August cuttings root only 50%. The stalk is formed as follows: the shoot is cut into pieces 7-10 cm long with two to three internodes. Above the leaves, the upper cut is made straight, under the leaves the bottom is oblique. Leaves can be shortened by half, the two lower leaves are removed altogether. After treatment with heteroauxin, cuttings are planted in a nursery under the film. The substrate consists of peat and sand, taken in equal volumes. Vegetatively propagated plants bear fruit in 2-3 years.
Often give layering from low branches.
Viburnum Bureya, or Buryat, or black - Viburnum burejaeticum.
It is found in the south of Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories, in Northeast China, North Korea. Grows in coniferous-deciduous forests on rich soils. Shade-tolerant hygrophyte.
Totally unlike viburnum ordinary, highly branched, sprawling shrub up to 3 m tall, sometimes a small tree with a spreading, delicate crown, a gray trunk and bare, light, yellowish-gray branches. In Moscow, 40-year-old plants have a height of 2.8 m, a crown diameter of 2.2-2.8 m. The leaves are elliptical, sometimes ovate (7.5 x 5 cm), sharp on the top, with a sharp-toothed edge, dark green on top , with sparse hairs, lighter underneath, densely hairy along the veins; yellowish-white, nondescript flowers (only fruiting) are collected in complex, thyroid inflorescences up to 10 cm across. Fruits with black, shiny skin and sweet, mealy flesh, edible, up to 0.8 cm in diameter.
Viburnum forks - Viburnum furcatum.
Distributed on Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, Japan and Korea, where it grows on mountain slopes in the forests of stone birch, in the undergrowth of coniferous and mixed forests and on the edges. It forms shrubbery on clearings and burns. A very ornamental shrub with very beautiful large leaves, bright white flowers and red fruits. The plant is decorative from the moment of growth to leaf fall. In spring, the leaves are reddish-brown, in the fall - bright purple with a beautiful pattern of indented veins. White flowers and bright red fruits adorn the plant.
Viburnum pride - Viburnum lantana.
One of the most famous and beautiful viburnum with black fruits, besides edible. It is distributed in Central and Southern Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa, and the North Caucasus. Available in the reserves of the Caucasus, the European part of Russia. Grows in the undergrowth of deciduous forests. Photophilous mesophyte.
Kalina David - Viburnum davidii.
Homeland Western China.
Dwarf evergreen shrub about 1 m high, with horizontally growing, symmetrically arranged shoots. Crohn is compact. Growing slowly. In culture, its height is 0.5-0.8 m. The diameter of the crown is twice as large. Very decorative leaves are leathery, evergreen, opposite, elliptical, 7-15 cm long, up to 8 cm wide, dark green. Deep parallel veins are characteristic. The flowers are white-pink, collected in umbrella-shaped inflorescences with a diameter of up to 8 cm. Blooms in June. Fruits are 6 mm long with an unusual blue color, ripen in October.
Viburnum dentate - Viburnum dentatum.
Homeland North America. On swamps and moist bushes of bushes.
This is a tall (3.5-5 m) densely branched shrub with smooth light gray bark. The crown is wide-spread, with a diameter of 5.5 meters. In Moscow, 30-year-old plants have a height of 3.3-3.5 m, crown diameter 2.5-2.8 m.The leaves are bright green, of an unusual shape, round, with deep straight veins, ending with large teeth along the entire edge of the leaf, 3-8 cm long. The flowers are white, small, collected in an inflorescence of 6 cm in diameter. Blossoms in June-July, in nature in May -June. The fruits are dark blue, small, 6-8 cm long, numerous, bitter in taste, readily eaten by birds.
Canadian viburnum - Viburnum lentago.
In nature, grows in eastern Canada, entering the United States. On the rocky slopes of the hills, along the forest edges, the banks of rivers and swamps, up to 800 m above sea level. the sea, along with other deciduous and coniferous trees.
High deciduous shrub or small tree up to 6 m tall, with an ovoid crown; broadly oval, pointed leaves, up to 10 cm long, smooth, shiny, finely serrated on the edge, bright green in the summer and various red tones in the autumn. Small flowering, creamy white flowers are collected in corymbose inflorescences up to 12 cm in diameter. Blooms in 10-15 days. Fruits - blue-black, with a bluish bloom, up to 1.5 m, edible. In the process of ripening, they change their color from green to blue-black and almost all summer, decorate the plant until autumn.
All types of viburnum are decorative, many have beautiful and diverse decorative forms. Desirable in all types of landings. Very effective against the background of maples, lindens, birches, firs and mountain ash. The sterile form of viburnum is well preserved in the cut. Viburnum in the garden is not only beautiful, but also useful, melliferous, medicinal and edible plants. In amateur gardens, guelder-rose, Canadian and ordinary, are most often grown.