Flower beds, features of the site and selection of plants
Each garden or its individual corner has its own characteristics: it can be open and well-lit, partially or completely shaded, dry or moist, have soils of different composition and acidity. But whatever the conditions on the site, a modern garden is unthinkable without flower beds and flower arrangements.
What flowers fill the shady garden with light? What to plant on a site with dry and poor soil? What flower garden will adorn the moistened shore of a pond? What will grow on a barren rocky slope? How to place plants in the flower garden? Such questions may arise in gardeners, especially beginners.
Flower garden in the shade
No matter how big the garden is, there are always shaded corners. The shadow is created by the house, outbuildings, fencing of the site. Sometimes between buildings only a narrow strip of land remains, on which almost no sunlight. Large trees give the site solidity, but at the same time obscure it. Over time, the garden you planted will grow, and sunny, which means that the most convenient places to create a flower garden, will become less and less. This problem is especially acute for owners of modern small land plots, where you really want to place a garden, a garden, and a lush flower garden .
The shading of the earth means not only the loss of usable area. Weeds shelter in a shaded, uncultivated area, and pests and diseases develop on them, and soon a shady area becomes a threat to the entire garden. That is why it is especially important to choose plants for decorating such a site.
Features of the site and selection of plants
In order to choose the right assortment of decorative leafy and beautifully flowering annual and perennial plants for your shaded area, you need to evaluate the degree of shading and moisture. The degree of shading is evaluated, given that it varies depending on the season and time of day. For example, in early spring, under the crowns of deciduous trees, there is a lot of light, and this makes it possible to grow many spring flowers here, which have time to bloom before the blossoming leaves cover the sun.
The sun looks at areas with a dense, inactive shadow less than two hours a day. As a rule, such shading is created by buildings, dense plantations of spruce and other conifers, oak, broad-leaved species, under the crowns of old, densely planted overgrown apple trees and on the north side of tall shrubs (shrubs, hawthorn). In such areas creates its own specific microclimate. In summer, there are less daily temperature drops, higher air humidity, no wind, and snow melts more slowly in spring.
Deciduous trees give light shade or partial shade: birch, cherry, mountain ash, bird cherry, sea buckthorn, ash, small-leaved maples. A similar type of shading can be seen in areas with broad-leaved trees, when planting is still young and the crowns have not closed. As a rule, the greatest shading here is observed at noon, and in general quite favorable conditions are created for many plants. Penumbra also reigns near large groups of trees and shrubs, on the east and west sides of the buildings.
Crown trees not only obscure the area, but also reduce the amount of water that enters the soil during rain. At the same time, the roots of the trees actively absorb the water, and along with a lack of light, the plants shaded by the trees lack moisture. The moisture content of the site is especially important for the selection of the assortment of plants, since most shade-tolerant and shade-loving species and varieties are very demanding on the amount of moisture. The problem of water shortage is very acute in areas with sandy soil.
Most shade-tolerant and shade-loving plant species are demanding on soil moisture.
It is also necessary to pay attention to exactly which trees create the shadow, especially if your site is located in a forest or at its edge.
As already noted, spruce form the most dense and motionless shadow. Under the canopy of these trees, subject to additional watering, you can plant ferns and astilbe. Noble liverwort grows and blooms here beautifully, noble liver grows easily, sour acid grows, preserving beautiful ternate leaves throughout the season and blooming in June with numerous yellow, white or pink flowers. At the same time, acidic acid interferes with the growth of other perennials, with the exception of lily of the valley, which develops well under fir trees even in conjunction with acidic. If spruce trees cover the plot from the north, then under their protection, for example, curly and single lilies can grow.
Oaks also create a fairly dense shadow. Oak forests are areas with fertile, moist soil. The leaves here bloom late enough, which creates excellent conditions for sprouts, muscari, corydalis, spring anemones, as well as the umbilical cord, pachisander. Under the oaks, lily of the valley blooms very abundantly. The dark green foliage of the oak harmonizes with the light leaves of the Canadian goldenrod, whose groups complement the bright red monard blooming from August to September. Spiked spirea can also be planted under oaks, and daisies, dentate, spring, Japanese and spring onions can be planted on its background. Plants of this composition bloom from mid-April to late July. Astilbe, hosts, rogers, incense, buzulnik, dicenter, black cohosh grow well under oaks. Similar conditions develop under the canopy of maples.
Birch trees give a bright shadow and improve the soil, although it is usually quite dry under them. Here you can plant bought, lilies of the valley, bluebells, forget-me-nots, violets, medunits, periwinkle, tenacious creeper, as well as bluebells and muscari. It is in the shade of a birch grove that plants with blue and lilac-pink flowers look advantageous. Carpets made of tiarella, which is especially decorative during the flowering period, are magnificent under birch trees.
Pine trees form a loose shadow. Here, bracken fern, bulbous plants, medunitsa, lumbago, bluebells, and cauliflower feel good here. Against the background of bark of pines, yellow and orange flowers of goryanka look advantageous.
Flower bed in a dry area
It would seem that a sunny plot is luck for a gardener. This is true if the soil on your site is well-drained and moisture-resistant and, in addition, during the summer season it is possible to regularly water the flower garden. Otherwise, you will have to observe with sorrow how many plants will wither leaves and flowers at noon, the period will be significantly reduced flowering, or even a drop of buds and flowers will occur. In dry areas, the soil is usually sandy, infertile, easily permeable to moisture. Similar soils reserved for the flower garden can be improved by removing the top layer to a depth of 40 to 50 cm and filling the bottom with a heavier, clay soil with a layer of 10-15 cm. Nutritious loamy soil of peat, compost and mineral fertilizers should be added to the removed soil. However, if for some reason there is no way to do this, then for such a site you can choose an assortment of plants that can preserve beauty and bloom profusely.
© Chris Wood
Features of the site and selection of plants
Most plants do not tolerate high temperature and low humidity. Similar conditions are typical for sunny areas with poor soil, as well as for flower beds on the south side of the walls, especially composed of dark-colored stones that are very hot in the sun or for slopes of the southern exposure. The same group includes territories in which construction has just been completed. If the soil is rocky, sandy or sandy loam, the plants suffer not only from a lack of moisture, but also from a lack of nutrients that quickly seep along with water into the lower layers of the soil. Among the advantages of a dry sunny area is the fact that the earth warms up quickly here and in spring the growth and flowering of plants begin earlier than in other places.
To increase the moisture capacity of the soil, it is necessary to improve its structure to a depth of at least 40 cm, and this is associated with significant material and physical costs. However, they can be minimized by selecting plants suitable for such growing conditions. These are, first of all, species of Mediterranean origin, as well as natives of the stony and dry prairies of North America. These "sun worshipers" give out appearance, for example, medium-sized pubescent, often hard leaves.
© Dylan Duvergé
Flower bed in a waterlogged area
A river or a lake located near your garden plot gives it a romantic charm and makes relaxing in the country more pleasant, especially in the summer. However, on such a site, as a rule, the level of groundwater is located close to the soil surface, and in the spring water may stagnate in depressions. Most ordinary garden plants are reluctant to bloom and grow on moist soil, their roots lack air access, and they can rot. Therefore, in order to successfully grow flowers in this case, it is necessary to carefully select their assortment. A significant share in the flower garden in a waterlogged area should be made up of bog plants that feel good when excessively moistened and even capable of being in a semi-submerged state for some time. It is vital for them that the soil never dries. However, this flower garden requires specific care features.
Features of the site and selection of plants
To solve the question of whether the site can be considered waterlogged, it is necessary to dig a hole with a depth of 50-60 cm. If water accumulates at its bottom over time, this is a sure sign of strong moisture. Another indicator is the presence of indicator plants of increased importance, which include meadow geranium, black sedge, palmate and bloated, cotton grass, fireweed, swamp horsetail, marsh marigold, meadowsweet, meadow foxtail.
In this case, an effective measure to improve the site is the creation of a drainage system - the work is expensive and time-consuming. Having picked up the appropriate assortment of perennial moisture-loving plants, you can decorate the site without significant costs.
Most plants suitable for growing in high humidity, as a rule, grow normally both in an open sunny area and in light shading. There are also plant species that are more suited to certain lighting conditions.
Acidic flower garden
Acidic soil is a significant problem when arranging a flower garden. Meanwhile, this type of soil is widespread in our country. This is facilitated by the introduction of large doses of mineral fertilizers, as well as the removal of crops and leaching of calcium and magnesium from the soil. Acidic are peaty, sod-podzolic soils, as well as soils on the border of coniferous forests. Many plants do not tolerate such conditions, because the aluminum contained in them interferes with access to the roots of calcium, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus. With a high acidity of the soil, the vital activity of soil bacteria participating in the decomposition of organic matter is suppressed. Root growth is also slowed down and their ability to absorb water is reduced. However, there are plants that are ideally adapted to life in such difficult conditions. The most famous of them are representatives of the heather family. However, it is not at all necessary to limit yourself to a heather garden, since there are plants that can develop well in conditions of not too strong acidification.
Features of the site and selection of plants
Acidity is measured by pH, to determine it you will need a set of indicator paper or a field pH meter, it can be purchased at the garden center. For soil analysis using indicator paper, several samples are taken in different places of the plot and at different depths, wrapped in clean gauze and lowered into a vessel with distilled water (1: 5 ratio of soil to water volumes). After 5 minutes, a dry strip of indicator paper is immersed for several seconds in water and the color in which it is painted with the attached scale is compared, where the pH values are indicated. At the same time, soil with a pH of 3-4.5 is considered strongly acidic, a pH of 4.5-5 is acidic, and a pH of 5.1-5.5 is weakly acidic. Common in central Russia, sod-podzolic soils, as a rule, have a pH of 4-5.5, that is, they can relate to all three groups of soil acidity.
Roughly determining acidic soil will help plants that occur on the site, such as sphagnum, plunders, hairy swine, turfy pike, dried marshmallow, dog violet, bog marsh, marsh rosemary, cauliflower.
The method of improving acidic soil is liming, the key to its success is the application of calcareous materials (chalk, dolomite, marl) without fail in the fall and at the right concentration: from 1.5 (sandy soil) to 4 (clay soil) kilograms per 10 m2 to increase the pH per unit. In peat soils with high acidity, the most problematic for growing plants, in addition to lime, loamy soil, organic and mineral fertilizers are added. The particle size of the calcareous material should not be more than 1 mm, and after making it, the site is dug up to a depth of at least 20 cm. In the future, the achieved acidity level must be maintained, including the introduction of organic fertilizers and the cultivation of plants belonging to the legume family on the roots of which there are special nodules with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Unfortunately, liming changes the properties of the soil for a period of about 10 years. Repeat this procedure the more often the more precipitation falls in your area.
To reduce the acidity of the soil, liming is used.
Choosing an assortment of ornamental plants for a flower garden on a site with acidic soil, it is necessary to focus primarily on the pH value. Most cultivated plants prefer soil whose environmental response is close to neutral (pH 5.5-7), and, for example, many natives of the Mediterranean do not tolerate acidic soils that are more suitable for growing plants originating from areas of Japan and Tibet.
So: choosing an assortment of ornamental plants for a flower garden on a site with acidic soil, it is necessary to focus primarily on the pH value.
On acidic soil, you can arrange a flower garden with the use of plants such as goldenrod, rhubarb, hydrangea, lupine, swimsuits, marsh marigold.
A win-win version of the flower garden on strongly acidic soil is a heather composition.
Poorly acidic soil is suitable for many ornamental plants, including roses, peonies, daisies, astilbe, asters, ageratum, left-handed, chrysanthemums, lilies of the valley, spring miniaration, Japanese anemone and buttercup, saxifrage moss and shady, phlox, Lungwort highlanders, greenfinch, bellflower nettle and broadleaf, as well as many species of ferns, primarily male shtitnik and bracken.
Of course, in addition to the acidity of the soil, it is necessary to take into account such important factors for plants as the lightness and humidity of your site. Plants that tolerate the increased acidity of the soil are suitable for creating flower beds in sunny or semi-shady areas.
© Per Ola Wiberg
- Zykova V.K., Klimenko Z.K. - Flower beds