Barbed Plum - Turn
In the excavations of pile structures two thousand years ago in Switzerland, thorns were found, which indicates the venerable age of this culture.
It is no coincidence that the turn is the founder of many varieties of plums known to us.
This plum is prickly. It grows with a bush, sometimes a tree up to 5 m high. It blooms in April-May before the leaves open. The flowers are white with yellow anthers, single, up to 2 cm in diameter, densely cover the shoots, give the bees predominantly pollen and a little nectar. The plant is completely self-fertile.
© Martin Olsson
The fruit of the thorns is drupe, black and blue with a bluish bloom, spherical in shape, with a diameter of 10-12 mm or more, with a green tart sweet and sour-flesh. The bone is spherical or ovoid, slightly flattened, wrinkled, sometimes resembles a cherry in shape (only larger), it is poorly separated.
Fruits ripen in July-August, hang on a tree until winter. After freezing, they lose their astringency and improve taste. Harvest 12-15 kg from one tree.
In the Volga region there is a variety of thorns with less tart and larger fruits, edible when fully ripened before the onset of cold weather.
Fruits thorns on three to four-year-old wood, mainly on short bouquet branches (spurs).
© Anneli Salo
The turn is photophilous, drought-resistant, frost-resistant. Its root system is located at a depth of 1 m, the roots spread far beyond the crown. It does not tolerate stagnant waters. It can serve as a stock for peach and plum, which on it become stunted.
Few people know about the sweet-fruit turn. Even I.V.Michurin, making wide use of crossbreeding, selection and vaccinations, brought dessert thorn, sweet thorn and greengage blackthorn plum. Yes, more recently, such plants were found in the old gardens of the Vladimir and Ivanovo regions, and nowadays, unfortunately, they have become extremely rare in the stands.
The tart fruits of the thorns have medicinal value. Despite this, they have long been out of the market.
The plant can be propagated by seeds, however, they need a long stratification, as well as cuttings and root offspring. Root offspring are formed abundantly, but there are specimens of thorns that practically do not form root shoots.
It is advisable to plant several seedlings with a distance of 2.5-3 m on the garden plot so that after they have begun to bear fruit, the extra trees should be removed, eventually leaving one or two most large-fruited specimens with the least tart fruits.
The shoots growing on the plot should be removed, like cherries and plums, at the level of the soil, and even better, the shoots away from the stem should be chopped with a spade along with a piece of root. In order to avoid the appearance of numerous shoots, it is better not to dig the soil under the tree (bush), apply top dressing superficially, followed by mulching. Weeds from the trunk circle to weed out, and mow the grass and leave in place as mulch.
© H. Zell
In the bush turn it is worth leaving no more than three or four fruiting branches so that the bush does not thicken and does not shade.
From the turn, you can make jam, jam, marmalade, jelly, refreshing drinks, kvass, fermented juice, fruit vinegar, and also apply for urinating, pickling, drying in a compote and coffee substitute. In France, the fruits of thorns are pickled as a substitute for olives (spicy seasoning).
In folk medicine, our ancestors used all parts of the thorns: roots, wood, bark, flowers, young leaves, fresh fruits and after freezing. Dried thorns can be used as a tonic tea. The juice from the fruits and the bark of the plant are used to dye fabrics in red.
The turn came into my garden unexpectedly. Somehow in late autumn, I saw that a branch about 30 centimeters long had broken off on a nearby section of the turn and was hanging on the bark. I cut it off with a secateurs under the breakdown site, trimmed the lower end of the break-off and stuck it in my ground.
The next spring, before the buds opened, a neighbor began to dig his turn for a transplant to another place and found several shoots underneath it, one of them gave me. I planted this seedling 2.5 meters from that branch, and when it came time to open the buds, both plants turned green.
For three years, my saplings of thorns grew to 1.5-2 m and gave the first fruits. Since then, every year I take a few kilograms of sweet, slightly tart fruits up to 20 mm in size.
In the frosty winter, the thorns froze. In the spring, both trees had to be pruned heavily. Many powerful fresh shoots have grown and root growth has appeared in several places. I dug it and distributed it to gardeners, and a year later I again received a harvest from my trees.
- G.A. Borovikov. Moscow region